NOTE: This is part one, of a two part
From the time I first discovered this magnificent
prophecy, sometime after I put my faith in Jesus Christ in the fall of 1977,
I have been intrigued and desired to understand it. I had heard many
teachers and preachers refer to it, and also make remarks about its
fulfillment. Some stated that it seemed the prophecy had been fulfilled to
within certain time periods in general, while others stated that it had been
completely and exactly fulfilled down to the very day. The latter, however,
never seemed to take the time or expend the effort to show why they
understood that it had been so fulfilled.
In 1996, and with fear and trembling, I set out to see if
I could understand it and also see how accurately it had been
fulfilled. After about three weeks of ongoing research, I was amazed and
became excited beyond expression when I saw that it had been fulfilled down
to the very day.
The method I used is rather straightforward and simply,
and I believe anyone can reduplicate my results if they wish.
I hope it helps you as much as it encouraged me.
Be sure you see
Part II of this same study.
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Daniel's “70 Weeks” – Part 1
Copyright © 1996, 1998, 2002 by
Walter T. Robinson II, All Rights Reserved.
Analyses of the “70 Years” Babylonian captivity
spoken of by Jeremiah 24:9–121 & 29:4–10, and the
“70 Weeks” Determined for Israel in Daniel 9:24–27
21, 1996, (Revised 1998, 2002)
2 contains a columnar layout of the chronology, kings, and events covered
herein. It is available as a separate document.
From the sacred Hebrew/Christian Scriptures we know the life
of the Hebrew prophets Jeremiah and Daniel spanned a very interesting and
difficult period for the Jewish people of Israel. Following, I provide a
historical look at the events which spanned their lives—and even on into the
future beyond their times. This will lay the groundwork for the final analyses
of the prophecies described in Jeremiah 24:11, 29:10, and Daniel 9:24–27.
Lastly, I will ultimately compare the actual events of history with the
prophetic Scriptural record preserved in the divinely inspired record.
The Three Overlapping
Jeremiah 25:9–12; Babylonian Rule over
Jerusalem To Last 70 Years
I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and
Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will bring them against
this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations
round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and
an hissing, and perpetual desolations.
I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice
of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and
the light of the candle.
this whole land shall be a desolation, and
an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy
it shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon,
and that nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the
Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations.
This prophecy focuses on Babylon and all the nations inhabiting the land with “this land,” i.e. the Kingdom of Judah and its capitol Jerusalem
serving as a point of reference. The remarkable points are as follows:
First, in verse 9 the Lord said Nebuchadnezzar is the chosen
“servant” whom He was going to bring against Israel and all the other
nations—some of which would suffer “perpetual” destruction.
Next, verse 11–12 says
all the nations in this region would serve Babylon for 70 years. Afterwards,
God promised to punish the king of Babylon, and the nation itself, and cause it
to suffer repeated destruction.
The main point of this passage,
which is pertinent to our overall study, is the specifically stated prophecy
that Babylon was to exercise total control over the entire described region.
However, after subjugating the region for 70 years—with Judah as a
was to be permanently broken.
Jeremiah 29:4–10; the Captivity And Return
Of The Jews Of Jerusalem
saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, unto all that are carried away
captives, whom I have caused to be carried away from Jerusalem unto Babylon;
ye houses, and dwell in them; and
plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them;
ye wives, and beget sons and daughters; and take wives for your sons, and give
your daughters to husbands, that they may bear sons and daughters; that ye may
be increased there, and not diminished.
seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away
captives, and pray unto the LORD for it: for in the peace thereof shall ye have
thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Let not your prophets and your
diviners, that be in the midst of you,
deceive you, neither hearken to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed.
they prophesy falsely unto you in my name: I have not sent them, saith the
thus saith the LORD, That after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will
visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to
This passage focuses on the people of Israel who were to
have previously lived in Jerusalem but would later be taken away captive into
Verses 4–7 reveals that
the Lord had instructed the Jews who were to be taken into Babylon not to
resist being taken into captivity. Instead, they were to make the best of the
situation and prepare for the duration. If they would do so, God promised the
captives they would enjoy productive lives and increase in number during the
In verses 8–9, the Lord
warns those taken captive into Babylon not to listen to the false prophets,
which kept saying God was not going to send them to Babylon while He chastened
the nation of Israel. False prophecies of this nature would naturally have led
some of the courageous to resist Nebuchadnezzar’s advances in futility.
The last and the most significant point, which is also
pertinent to our overall study, is found in verse 10. Here, the Lord
promised that he was going to return the displaced Jews back to Jerusalem after
they have been held captive in Babylon for 70 years.
Daniel 9:22–27; the Jewish Return to
Jerusalem, the Building of the Temple,
and The Walls and Street of the City Are
Rebuilt, And Lastly, The Messiah Is Cut Off
22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to
give thee skill and understanding.
23 At the beginning of thy supplications the
commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved:
therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.
24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people
and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of
sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting
righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most
25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the
commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and
two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous
26 And after threescore and two weeks shall
Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that
shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end
of the war desolations are determined.
27 And he shall confirm the covenant with
many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice
and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall
make it desolate, even until the
consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
This passage is the central focus of this study and needs
the most explanation.
First, in verses 22–23 the angel Gabriel informs Daniel he
has come because of his supplication. In 9:2–3, Daniel said he had been making
supplication concerning the fulfillment of Jeremiah’s prophecies as explained above. And, verse
23 specifically says the commandment actually came forth the moment Daniel
began his supplications. Thus, Gabriel was saying that the decree to return the
captive Jews of Jerusalem from Babylon had just been issued. As you will later
see, historical records indicate this decree was actually issued by Cyrus, King
of Persia in 536 B.C.
Next, verse 24 literally indicates that God had planned for
7 specific events to occur over a period of time defined as “70 weeks.” The
Hebrew expression, ['Wbv;, (shâbûwa`),
translated weeks here is actually a
proper passive participle meaning sevened. This expression is actually derived from [b'v; (shâba`) which is
a prime root meaning to be complete—or to seven
oneself. And, this latter expression is used only as a denominative form of h[;bv] (shib`âh) which
is a prime cardinal number simply denoting a week of seven. Thus, Gabriel told Daniel the said events to follow would
occur over a period of time being 70 X 7—or simply 490 in length.
Since the language here is using familiar terms, it is not
wrong to think of 70 weeks denoting 490 days.
However, one must also understand the proper concept of a day when it is used
in prophetic reference to future events such as is used here, and by another
prophet named Ezekiel who was contemporary with Daniel.
Ezekiel 4:5–6 shows that
God’s time reference using
prophetic days can actually mean each day represents one year.
I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of
the days, three hundred and ninety days: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the
house of Israel.
when thou hast accomplished them, lie again on thy right side, and thou shalt
bear the iniquity of the house of Judah forty days: I have appointed thee each day for a year. [Emphasis mine]
Using this standard of each day representing one year,
weeks of 7’s
most likely denotes 490 prophetic days that actually refers to 490 prophetic
The remainder of Daniel 9:24 also names seven events that
are to happen specifically to the Jews and to the city of Jerusalem. They were
enumerated as follows.
1. Finish the transgression.
2. Make an end to sins.
3. Make reconciliation for iniquity.
4. Bring in everlasting righteousness.
5. Seal up the vision.
6. Seal up the prophecy.
7. Anoint the most Holy.
What each of these actually means should become apparent as
Daniel 9, verse 25 states that a commandment was going to go
forth causing Jerusalem to be restored.
It also says the newly rebuilt city would survive up unto and through the time
of the “Messiah the Prince.” This statement is further clarified in the next
verse, verse 26. Notwithstanding, verse 25 also says the amount of time that
would pass from when the commandment will have first been given to restore the city—to the time the city
would be officially considered rebuilt—would be 7 weeks of 7’s or 49 prophetic
days representing 49 prophetic years. In addition, verse 25 also says for 62
weeks of 7’s (i.e., 434 prophetic days representing
434 prophetic years) that both the walls of the city and the street would be
built again and survive through some very troublesome times.
For a point of
clarification for our Jewish friends, verse 26 says that at the conclusion of the
62 weeks of seven periods, the Messiah would be cut off—but not for Himself. The Hebrew expression translated ‘Messiah’
in verses 25 and 26 is j'yvim;, (mashiyach [maw-shee’-akh]),
which is a male singular adjective for ‘anointed one’. Moreover, the expression translated “cut off” in this verse
means to be killed. The same expression is used in Genesis 9:11 where God
promised that He would never again destroy all flesh from off the earth by a
flood. These 62 prophetic weeks, plus the previous 7 represent 69 weeks of
seven periods, i.e., 483 prophetic
Verse 26 goes on to say
something about the temporary demise of Jerusalem and the “sanctuary,” which is
another expression for the Jewish Temple. It also describes an indeterminate
period of time that would take place between the fulfillment of the 69th
and 70th weeks. Again, the Messiah being cut off, i.e., or killed, would signal the end of
the 69th week. After that, a flood—or rather, a large army of
people—would eventually destroy the city and the “sanctuary.” Sometime after
that, an evil “prince” would arise who would be descended from the people that will
have actually destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple sometime after the death of
the Messiah. The passage also indicates that after the destruction of the city
and the Temple, Israel and the world would suffer ongoing destruction and wars
until the time of the “end.”
The time of the end would
culminate with the end of the last week of years. Again, Gabriel told Daniel that
there were actually 70 weeks of years and events determined for his people and
Jerusalem. Accordingly, after the Messiah was killed, one more week of years
would play out sometime later and Jerusalem and the Temple would be destroyed. Daniel’s
prophecy goes on to describe the significant events that will mark the
beginning of this last week of 7 prophetic years. This event and some specific
details of this week are described in verse 27.
Verse 27 describes the activities of the future coming
unnamed “prince” mentioned in the previous verse. That means, once the Messiah
would be cut off, and the city and sanctuary would be subsequently destroyed
later on, at some unknown point in
the future this evil “prince” would arise from among the nationality of the people
who actually destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple. It goes on to say the future
prince would then proceed to make an overpowering accord, which is supposedly
to be in effect for the length of one prophetic week. However, in the middle of
the week—or, after 3 1/2 prophetic years—this prince will break the accord and
put an end to the “sacrifice and the oblation.” This means the prince’s accord will have
been made with Israel, which is likely to have another Temple standing and in
use when the accord is broken.
Thus, Daniel was told that
it is likely that another Temple is yet to be built at some time in the future
after the city and sanctuary would be destroyed after the death of the Messiah.
One could say that another Temple would indeed be necessary to facilitate the
orthodox Jews who would once more begin to make sacrifices right before the
time of the end.
To deal with the last part of verse 27, it is necessary to
take a little detour.
Daniel 9:27; “For the Overspreading Of
Abominations,” Or “On the Wing of
In the latter part of verse 27, Daniel said, “and for the overspreading of abominations
he shall make it desolate.” “It”
here is rightly italicized because it was not in the original Hebrew and the
translators wanted the readers to know it was merely added in hopes of
clarifying the passage. Thus, this passage could be more literally rendered “and for the overspreading of abominations
he shall make desolate.” But, what could this possibly mean?
My personal study of the Hebrew of the last part of verse 27
indicates this passage literally says,
“upon the wing of abominable things will come one who makes desolate.”
Many writers, researchers, historians, and translators have
made mention of the seemingly apparent enigma bound up in verse 27. Just to
present a few, consider the four following quotations:
This clause is remarkably obscure. “And upon the wing of abominations
causing amazement.” This is the literal translation of the place; but still
there is no determinate sense. [Page 762 of Adam
Clark's Commentary on the Bible, Abridged by Ralph Earle: Baker Book House:
Tregelles translates, “upon the wing of abominations
shall be that which causeth desolation”; . . . [Page 757 of the revised Commentary on the Whole Bible: Jamieson,
Fausset, and Brown. Zondervan Publishing House: Michigan, 1961.]
But what is meant by the “wing of abominations?” The language is without parallel in the Old
Testament, unless such passages as Ps. xviii. 10, civ.
3 are adduced where, however, the plural “wings,” and not the singular is used.
. . . The sense is in that case, “and upon the wing”—i.e. the pinnacle of the
abominations (comp. the use Daniel's
“70 Weeks” of pterugion, Matt. iv. 5) is a desolator. [Page 68 of The Book of Daniel; The Layman's Handy
Commentary Series, Edited by Charles John Ellicott. The Book of Daniel by the Rev. H. Deane. B.D.,
Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford. Zondervan Publishing House: Michigan,
“. . . and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which
causeth appalment;” [Page 1022 of The Holy Scriptures; According to the
Masoretic Text, A New Translation. The Jewish Publication Society of
America: Philadelphia, 1917, 1945.]
Most interpreters have eventually—and seemingly
reluctantly—settled on the notion that the Hebrew here refers to the placing of
an abominable idol, or image of some sort, on a wing of the Jewish Temple yet
to be built as of the writing of this study. This has become the forced
rendering because the literal translation did not make sense to those writing
the commentaries many years ago—some even a few hundred years ago.
However, we must bear in mind that Daniel 12:4 says, “But
thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the
end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.” Thus, God inspired Daniel to write these
prophecies in a way that they could not be understood until the time near the
almost as if God covered Daniel’s prophecies with a gelatin seal, which is
slowly being melted away by the warm waters of ongoing history.
Many of the above quoted authors initially produced their
work before this century. Consequently, it is naturally understood that some
things would not be readily understandable by them since they were obviously
not as close to the end as we would be today.
Yet, considering some events and developments of this
century, my personal and somewhat limited efforts at translating this passage
led me to conclude that this passage is not referring to a “wing of the
Temple.” I candidly admit, however, that my resultant rendering was difficult
for even me to receive—until I found
someone else who had previously arrived at a somewhat similar one. I am
referring to Arthur Pink, and something he wrote originally in 1929, and was later
reproduced in his classic book entitled, The
Antichrist. The interesting foreword of the 1979 Klock
and Klock edition of this book states the following:
The writings of Arthur Walkington Pink have become popular since his death in
1952. Born in England, Pink held pastorates in Australia and in the United
States, and in his later years enjoyed a widespread ministry throughout the
English speaking world.
The chapters which
comprise The Antichrist were first
published in Studies in the Scriptures—a
monthly magazine edited by Mr. Pink and devoted to the exposition of the Word.
In 1923, these essays were gathered together and published in book form.
In introducing his subject matter, Pink
Across the varied scenes depicted by prophecy
there falls the shadows of a figure at once commanding and ominous. Under many
different names, like the aliases of a criminal, his character and movements
are set before us. It is our intention to write . . . concerning this one who
will be the full embodiment of wickedness and the final manifestation of
As with Darth Vader of Star Wars, the powerful figure of this
`prince of darkness' attracts attention. He represents the ‘dark side of the
Force’ for he has perverted the power given him and, as the epitome of
lawlessness (i.e. the Man of Sin) now seeks to extend the sphere of his
influence to every corner of the universe.
reproduced the above to give you a little background about Mr. Pink and to show
the thinking of Cyril Barber, the person who wrote the above introduction. Apparently,
Mr. Barber—like me—has grown up in a generation where new attitudes and
concepts can be envisioned in vivid terms that have been formed by what we have
been exposed to in our own lifetime. This includes the period in which the
nation of Israel miraculously became a nation again in 1948, some 2,500 years
after it was brought into captivity and ceased being a sovereign nation in A.D.
Like many, when I look at passages that have been seemingly
obscure a few centuries back, I tend to view them technically and according to
the original language first, then logically and according to context, and
lastly, through the possible concepts to which I have been exposed in my
lifetime. I believe this is in part what the divinely inspired prophet did in Daniel
It also seems that Arthur
Pink grasped a concept that had began to develop in his lifetime, which enable
him to pierce more of the veil that had been placed over the Book of Daniel
some 2,500 years ago. Amazingly, he boldly expressed his views in writing as
reproduced on page 168 of his book. In considering Daniel 9:27, he wrote;
. . Seventh, the setting up of this “image” to the Antichrist will, most
probably, be attended with supernatural phenomenon. We gather this from Dan.
9:27, where we read, “And he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to
cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate”.
Now the word here translated “overspreading” is never so rendered elsewhere.
Seventy times is this word translated “wing” or “wings”. It is the word used of
the wings of the cherubim in Ex. 25:20 and Ezeck.
10:5, etc. And in Psalm 18:10 we read of Jehovah that “He rode upon a cherub,
and did fly: yea, He did fly upon the wings of the wind.
profound Hebrew scholar has rendered the last clause of Dan. 9:27 as follows,
“And upon the wing of abominations he shall come desolating.”. . .
Mr. Pink did not name his
“profound Hebrew scholar.” Yet, I found this rendering of this passage most
remarkable. It was almost exactly the same as the one I had arrive at after
much tedious work.
Mr. Pink continued the
above by saying something similar to what I felt the implication of my
rendering meant. He added;
. . . Remembering that
“abomination” has reference to an idol or false god, the force would then be
“upon the wing of a false god, he shall come desolating”. Now, in view of Psa. 18:10 it is highly probable that Dan. 9:27 refers to a satanic imitation of the Chariot of
the Cherubim. . . . If this view be correct, then the Antichrist
will be supernaturally born aloft (by invisible demons), and apparently
descending from on high (in blasphemous mimicry of Mal. 3:1) will finally [sic.] persuade the world to worship him
as God. The apostate Jews will, no doubt, believe that their eyes at last
behold the long-awaited sign from heaven, and the return of the glory to the
I must add that since Mr. Pink wrote the above, our own
aerospace technology has produced aircraft configurations, which are simply
called a “flying wing.” A couple of examples are the U.S. Navy’s V-173 of the
1940s, and the stealth fighter and stealth bomber of the 1990s. Even more
significant, I believe, is the nearly worldwide familiarity with the strange
phenomena of unidentified flying objects (i.e.,
UFOs), which are often simply described as being round and disk shaped. I could
be mistaken, but I believe this could also qualify as a craft of a single
winged design. I might add, my research indicates that the reported strange
phenomenon and occultic connection with these craft fit right in with my
notions as also with Mr. Pink’s.
The problem with making sense out of this part of verse 27
was the idea of a one winged something carrying something. Until the latter
part of the previous century, only creatures with a pair of wings were known to
be able to fly. However, technology, strange and so-far unexplained phenomenon,
and entertainment like Star Wars and Star Trek have changed all that. New
paradigms are being formed which actually make the literal interpretation of
Daniel 9:27 logically possible. There is much more to be said about this,
however, it eludes the scope of this study.
In any case, regardless of what it is or how it arrives,
Daniel 9:27 also states that that which is to cause “desolation” will continue
until it is consumed and all the destruction determined is completed.
With the above passages considered and analyzed, I proceed
to the next section, which compares the historical record with the
The Historical And Biblical
Record Compared With The Prophecies
Please bear in mind the following as I proceed from this
point on. All chronological dates for Old Testament events have been determined
by relating specific events to each historical king and reckoning the Biblically
recorded events from the beginning year of their reign. Since the Jewish
authors of antiquity did not used the methods we currently used to mark days
and years, this is the only way dates can be determined—not only by me—but everyone else as well.
This is similar to a navigational system based upon
“dead-reckoning.” In such a system, one takes the distance, the direction, the
time to travel between each point, and various recognizable guideposts to
determine their present location along any planned course of travel. However,
if they at some point discover they have strayed off course a little somewhere,
they merely make a course correction once they reach one of the dependable guideposts.
That’s what I
have done with the events of 446–444 B.C. Yet, everything else appears to be
perfectly on course.
In using a system of dead
reckoning, if one guidepost is somehow mistaken
for another, God only knows where the navigator will end up. In like manner, if the wrong king is selected for any given
event—or the date for the beginning of his reign is incorrect—the rest of the
chronology connected to that event will also be thrown off. Even worse, all the
following chronology is also subject to the same errors.
Thus, I will present the generally accepted secular names
and dates of the historical kings of this period and the years of their reigns.
My chief source here is the 1976 Encyclopedia
Britannica with two significant alternatives affected the end of one king’s reign and the
beginning of the reign of the next one who came to power. Remember, the year of
the reign of each one is reckoned from the time he gained control over
||My Preferred Alternatives
||(Served as the crowned prince and head of the army from 606–605.Became king in 605.)
|Darius I (Hystaspis)
|Xerxes I (Ahasuerus)
|Artaxerxes I (Longimanus)
|Darius II (Nothius)
|Artaxerxes II (Mnemon)
|Artaxerxes III (Ocus)
As you can see, my only
real difference is with the end of the reign of Xerxes I and the subsequent
beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes I. However, I am not the only one who has
questions concerning these points. Some of my sources have question marks
beside these particular years indicating they are not positively sure about
them either. Even my own Thompson Chain
Reference Bible has the beginning chronological date for Nehemiah as 446,
not 445. Even here, the date has a question mark beside it. Yet, some of the
other chronological information in this same Bible varies considerably from
mine in other places.
Due to those who originally penned the historical documents
of the Jews, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans all having had their own
methods of reckoning to provide us with this past information, one would have
to figure out exactly when in a modern solar year a king’s reign began and ended. Thus, the
beginning of the year for one could actually be the ending of the year for
reckoning—or vise versa. Therefore, to keep this study as simple as possible
without risking the accuracy and integrity of the whole, I have taken the
widely accepted dates and adjusted one questionable period by one or two years.
You may want to refer back to the above table repeatedly as
you read the pages that will follow.
Babylon Begins to rule over Jerusalem
609 B.C.(?) to 597 B.C.
Year Reign under Pharaoh-Necoh, Then Nebuchadnezzar
According to 2 Kings
23:29–37, King Josiah (640–609 B.C.) was killed at Megiddo by Pharaoh-necoh,
the king of Egypt. The people of the land then installed Josiah’s 23 year-old son, Jehoahaz, as king. However,
after Jehoahaz ruled in Jerusalem for 3 months, the pharaoh bound him and sent
him to Egypt to live the rest of his days. Once the pharaoh had deposed
Jehoahaz, he then installed Josiah’s 25 year-old son Eliakim as king and changed his name to Jehoiakim.
History indicates Jehoiakim was installed as king in 609 B.C. and ruled for 11
years until 598 B.C.
Daniel 1:1–3 says Nebuchadnezzar came to Jerusalem and
besieged it during the 3rd year of Jehoiakim’s reign. Counting 3 years from 609 B.C.
siege and the conquering of Jerusalem to some time in 606 B.C. At that time,
Nebuchadnezzar took part of the vessels from Solomon’s Temple and carried them away to
Babylon where he placed them in the house of his god, Bel or Baal. This is also
the time a very young Daniel and other young ones of the royal seed were
carried away into captivity in Babylon and placed in the service of King
Nebuchadnezzar. In addition, 2 Kings 24:1–3 indicates that Jehoiakim remained
the king of Jerusalem at the time and ruled under the dominion of King
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Thus, the
captivity of the Jews in Babylon began in 606 B.C.
2 Kings, 24:1–3 goes on to say that after serving
Nebuchadnezzar for three years Jehoiakim rebelled against him. Because of the
rebellion, Nebuchadnezzar eventually sent troops of Chaldees, Syrians,
Moabites, and Ammonites against Jehoiakim and regained control over Jerusalem
in 598 B.C., which ended Jehoiakim’s 11-year reign. Consequently, the captivity of the Jews in
Babylon was only escalated when this king and some of his people were also removed away to Babylon. According to 2
Chronicles 36:8–10, this group would have been taken away in the 8th month and
the 20th day of 598 B.C.
2 Chronicles 36:7 also indicates, that after Nebuchadnezzar
had deposed Jehoiakim he took some more of the sacred vessels from the Temple
and carried them away into Babylon and put them in the Temple of his god along
with those he had taken 11 years earlier.
Jehoiachin Rules for 3 Months And 10 Days under
2 Chronicles 36:8–10 then says Jehoiakim’s son, Jehoiachin
became king and ruled for 3 months and 10 days. This took place in 598 B.C. But,
at the end of that year, Nebuchadnezzar also took him captive to Babylon and
brother, Zedekiah, as king.
597 B.C. to 586 B.C.
Zedekiah Rules for 11 Years under
Once Jehoiachin had been carried away captive into Babylon
at the end of the year, his brother Zedekiah then began serving as sub-regent
under Babylonian control for the next 11 years. Consequently, his rule began at
the very beginning of 597 B.C.
2 Kings 24:19 adds that Zedekiah also rebelled against God’s will just as
Jeremiah had prophesied, thus provoking Nebuchadnezzar by not submitting to his
instructions as God had previously instructed through Jeremiah as recorded in
29:1–7, 32:1–5, and 32:26–35.
Also, Jeremiah 32:2–5 reports that Zedekiah even imprisoned
the prophet Jeremiah for daring to prophesy and warn the people that God had
determined for Nebuchadnezzar to successfully capture Jerusalem and her king.
Thus, he was telling the people it was futile to resist the Chaldean
Moreover, 2 Chronicles
36:12–20 goes on to report that during the 9th year of Zedekiah’s reign, he openly rebelled against
Nebuchadnezzar. This provoked the Babylonian king to bring the Chaldean army
against Jerusalem once more.
2 Kings 25:1–2 reports that Nebuchadnezzar brought his
entire army to Jerusalem and besieged it. This siege began in the 10th day of
the 10th month of the 9th year of Zedekiah’s reign. This was in the year 588 B.C. The
siege lasted until the 9th day of the 4th month of the 11th year of Zedekiah’s reign when the
walls were breached and the Babylonians gained entry into Jerusalem. This was
in the year 586 B.C.
Once the walls were breached after the 1 1/2 year siege,
Zedekiah and his men fled the city. Zedekiah was later captured on the plains
of Jericho and subsequently brought to Riblah where he was judged and his sons
were slain in his presence. He was then blinded and bound with fetters and
carried away into captivity into Babylon, thus ending his 11-year reign.
Once Jerusalem was breached and Zedekiah was carried away,
Nebuchadnezzar sent his own man to Jerusalem to oversee things for him. For
this job, Nebuchadnezzar selected Nebuzaradan who had previously proved himself
as the captain of the guard in Babylon.
Upon Nebuzaradan’s arrival in Jerusalem, he burned down the Temple,
which utterly destroyed any sacred vessels which had remained inside. He also
destroyed all the houses, great and small, in Jerusalem. Lastly, the Chaldean
army then tore down the walls that surrounded the city of Jerusalem. All of
this took place in 586 B.C.
Once the material destruction of the Jerusalem had been
accomplished, Nebuzaradan then collected a number of people of the city and
moved them to Babylon. Those taken into captivity included the rich and those
who had fought and subsequently fled when the wall was breach by
Babylonian Rule Ends And Medo-Persian Rule
Begins Under Cyrus The Persian And Darius The
536 B.C. to 516 B.C.
Decree to the Completed Temple
According to Ezra 1:1–5, in 536 B.C. Cyrus issued a decree for
Zerubbabel and others to leave Babylon and return to Jerusalem to rebuild the
Temple. Ezra 3:8 indicates that the work began 2 years later (534 B.C.) and
continued for many years.
conquering Babylon and subsequently issuing the decree, giving Ezra and other
Jews the freedom to return to Jerusalem, came exactly 70 years after Jerusalem,
her king, and the first Jews fell under Babylonian domination in 606 B.C. This is just as Jeremiah had prophesied in
25:9–12 and 29:10!
An Alternate Chronology: Jerusalem from the
Time the Wall
Was Built Until the Time the Temple and
City Was Completed
According to Nehemiah 2:1–8, Artaxerxes I granted his Jewish
cup-bearer permission to leave the palace at Shushan, Persia’s capitol, and
return to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls of the city (446 B.C.)
However, once the wall around Jerusalem was completed,
certain non-Jews in the service of the king wrote letters to him claiming the
Jews had built the walls and were rebuilding the Temple planning to rebel. As a
result, the work on the Temple reconstruction came to a halt. (Ezra 4:11–24)
However, in 421, the Spirit of the Lord stirred up Haggai and other prophets in
Jerusalem prompting very old Zerubbabel to resume the work even though he did
not have official permission. (Ezra 5:1–2) Others soon joined him only to draw
the attention and questions by the officiating Persian Satrap.
Zerubbabel, the prophets, and the priests all claimed that
Cyrus had indeed given the Jews an official decree ordering them to rebuild the
Temple 115 years earlier back in 536. They then wrote a letter to that effect
to the king, Darius II, prompting him to search the official written records.
(Ezra 5:13–17) Once the search was concluded, the king discovered that the Jews
had spoken the truth. This king then issued a hasty decree for all help and due
speed to be given to the Jews so they could finish the Temple as soon as
possible. (Ezra 6:3–12) Four years later, in 417, the Temple was completed and
all kings who were somehow officially involved with its progress—Cyrus II,
Darius II, and Artaxerxes I—were mentioned as having given decrees which had
helped in some way. (Ezra 4:14–15) Lastly, with great joy the Temple was duly
dedicated. (Ezra 6:16)
Twenty years later, in 397, Artaxerxes II (Ezra 7:1–7)
issued his decree for all Jews remaining in Babylon to be released and allowed
to return to Jerusalem if they wished. This group was led by Ezra. A few months
after arriving, various religious reforms were made, all the feasts were fully
reinstituted, and the wall around Jerusalem was finally dedicated.
As I alluded to earlier, some of the chronology here
probably seems unique to many. For those who wish to see the mechanics of how I
arrived at these results, see the attached, “A Chronological Analysis of the
Kings Who Ruled over Jerusalem From 606–331 B.C.,” which is contained in Part
II. This study resulted from me not being able to fit Daniel’s prophecies recorded
in 9:24–26 with the recorded facts of history. After failing at many attempts
to do so, and praying over the matter, I came to throw out some of the
traditionally accepted chronology, which seems to have originated with the
Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus.
I realize many could misconstrue this as the ultimate
exercise in presumptive pride. However, I assure you, the method I used, and
the results are very simple and were easy to arrive at—though it did take a lot
of work to represent it properly on the written page to enable the matter to be
considered from an overall comparative perspective.
My initial approach, of individual linear analysis of each
book in question, consistently allowed me to assign some events as to have
taken place during the reign of the wrong king. Thus, like many others, I kept
jumping to the wrong kingly guideposts, which repeatedly threw me off the true
The comparative method I finally used is really quite
simple. I merely pulled out my Encyclopedia
Britannica and copied the historical names of each Persian king and the
historically known date of each one’s reign. Next, I took chiefly the Old Testament books of Ezra
and Nehemiah—with some pertinent input from Esther, Haggai, Daniel, and
Zechariah—and carefully noted all mentioned dates and names of every king
throughout. I paid special attention not to overlook any king who was
mentioned—no matter how small.
I was also careful to handle each reported incident either
as a current event happening within the given text of the moment, or as a past
event that was being related to explain the background for the current events.
In doing the above, a tight chronological flow soon
developed that yielded results which have caused to me to rejoice ever since. I
believe that recorded history indicates that the prophecies given in Daniel
9:24–26 were fulfilled literally and perfectly!
For some who may not be versed in the traditionally accepted
chronology of Jerusalem existing under the Persian kings, I will provide a
brief overview. I will also state my reasons for believing they are partly in
Now the reader must bear in mind that Daniel reported that
portions of his book was going to be kept closed—or, non-understandable—until the time of the end. (Daniel 12:4)
Also bear in mind that Daniel said in the last days knowledge was going to
increase. Thus, it makes sense that even Josephus would have had a difficult
time understanding the specifics of Daniel’s prophecies. His research material would
have been somewhat more limited than what is available today due to the massive
compilation, cataloguing, translation, and indexing of numerous ancient written
works of historical importance, which has taken place this century. Thus, I do
not believe understanding these matters is purely a matter of right methodology
and mental prowess. Instead, it is a matter of timing and available research
material—all superintended by the Spirit of the God of Heaven.
Pages 229–230 of Halley’s Bible Handbook offer the following traditionally accepted
chronology for the period under consideration. This chronology is typical among
others. (Note; all dates are given in B.C.—and, the following is not quoted verbatim.)
536 Zerubbabel led the
first returnees back to Jerusalem.
536 Zerubbabel built the
535 Work on the Temple
520 Work renewed by
Haggai and Zechariah.
516 Temple completed.
478 Esther becomes Queen
457 Ezra goes from
Babylon to Jerusalem.
Nehemiah rebuilds the wall.*
432 Nehemiah returned
once more from Babylon.
* (As I have already said, some believe this
date could be 446 or 445 depending upon when Artaxerxes I—also known as
Longimanus—actually began his reign. In either case, I favor 446 for reasons,
which will soon become apparent.)
Among the traditionally accepted views, there are both
variations and consistencies.
Among the consistencies, several believe Cyrus gave the
original decree in 536 for Zerubbabel to take the first returnees to Jerusalem
to begin rebuilding the Temple. Many also believe Nehemiah was commissioned in
446 to rebuild and finish the walls by Artaxerxes I. I agree on these points. Among
the variations, some believe, as the late J. Vernon McGee did, that Ezra led
the last returnees back to Jerusalem under Artaxerxes II in 397. I agree with
However, many believe the Temple work, which had begun under
Cyrus II, was stopped under the reign of Cambyses whom—for some reason—they
also believe was called “Artaxerxes” or “Ahasuerus.” Consequently, they also
believe the work was resumed a short time later under Darius I in 520–519 and
was completed in 515. They also believe that Ezra received the decree to take
the last returnees back to Jerusalem under Xerxes I in 478 or Artaxerxes I in
457. I disagree with this for reasons to be stated shortly.
First, the first historically recorded Persian king named
“Artaxerxes” which reigned during this period was Artaxerxes I, not Cambyses.
Thus, the earliest possible year for Nehemiah to have built the wall around
Jerusalem would have to have been 20 years from the beginning of the reign of
Artaxerxes I (i.e., 446). This is
probably why almost everyone agrees on this particular point in the Jewish chronology.
Next, it seems many have overlooked some small—but,
significant—facts that shows specifically which kings were involved, the
actually chronology, and the specific
reason the king halted the work on the Temple which had been going on since
Ezra 4:3–6 says Cyrus
(536–529) began the work on the Temple. It also shows the sequence of
successive kings from Cyrus that became involved with the Temple in some way or
another. Verses 5 and 6 shows that the sequence from Cyrus skipped Cambyses and
proceeded through Darius I (521–485) unto Ahasuerus (or Xerxes I).
Xerxes I (485–466) was
the first to receive a written complaint about the Jews work to rebuild the
temple. Yet, Ezra indicates that the work on the Temple continued unhindered,
possibly due to the favor the Jews had gained from Ahasuerus who had taken the
beautiful Jewess, Esther, as his Queen in his 7th year (478, Esther 2:16). In
the 12th year of his reign, she courageously stood up for her people and
delivered them from Haman’s plot
(473, Esther 3:7, 12, 5:1, and 9:15–17).
The next successive king mentioned by Ezra is found in
4:7–24. This passage says that some non-Jewish leaders wrote a letter, in
Syrian, to a king named “Artaxerxes.” It claimed that the Jews in Jerusalem
were planning to use the recently raised “WALLS” to rebel against the Persians (4:12).
Therefore, since the walls were not raised under Cambyses, Darius I, or Xerxes
I, the work on the Temple could not have been halted until sometime in the 20th
year of the reign of Artaxerxes I (466–425)—who actually gave Nehemiah the
official permission to rebuild the city—beginning with the wall (Nehemiah 2:5).
Thus, the work on the wall could not have been begun and finished until 446.
Lastly, Cambyses only reigned for 7 years from 529–522. So, nothing could have
been accomplished in the 20th year of Cambyses because there was no such year
in his reign!
These very simple, but very significant points of reference,
affect the real time chronology from Ezra 5:1 and Nehemiah 8:1 to the end of their
To strengthen this position further, Nehemiah stated that
after the wall had been completed (446), he appointed some faithful men to
watch over and guide the rest of the city while it was being reconstructed
(Nehemiah 7:1–3). He then called for a census so the people would know to which
cities surrounding Jerusalem they belonged according to their inherited
ancestry as had been determined in chapters 26–36 of Numbers. Nehemiah also
knew that most of the people were not going to remain in the city itself because the houses had not yet been built
in Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 7:4–5)
Since Nehemiah’s main job of rebuilding the walls were
finished, and the people themselves now had the task of rebuilding the houses,
and since not many people remained in the desolated interior of the city of
Jerusalem itself at the time, there was nothing to keep him from returning to
Persia per his original agreement with the king. Yet, it does seem he
continued to serve as the governor of Jerusalem in absentia.
In any case, the census was taken and Nehemiah returned to
Shushan to Artaxerxes I, just as he had promised (2:6 & 13:6). The people
scattered to live in the cities surrounding Jerusalem (7:73) while the rest of
the city—including the Temple—was still undergoing reconstruction. However,
Nehemiah did return to Jerusalem sometime later and was there when Ezra and the
last returnees arrived. (Nehemiah 13:6–7)
Whether Nehemiah remained in Jerusalem in 446, or returned
to serve Artaxerxes I in Shushan, as I tend to believe, does not affect the
chronology of the events here. Yet, if Nehemiah had still been in Jerusalem and
serving as governor when the king received the letter that claimed that the
Jews were planning a rebellion, the king could have viewed Nehemiah as the chief
At the very least, the
king may have considered Nehemiah a contributor or perhaps as approving of the
rebellion. In any case, it is likely the king would not only have stopped the
work on the Temple as he actually did, but he probably would have removed
Nehemiah from the position of governor—at the very least. At the worse, the
king could have dealt more severely with him as one who was committing treason
against Persia and her king.
However, if Nehemiah was
no longer in Jerusalem, but instead at the king’s side when the letter actually arrived, the king
may have thought that a few religious zealots had gotten a little too
enthusiastic since the walls were built. Thus, he would have likely decided to
calm things down awhile, just as Ezra 4:21 seems to indicate.
On the other hand, if the king had received the letter and
stopped the work on the Temple before
he had commissioned Nehemiah to go and rebuild the city; chances are that he
would have never been so gracious toward Nehemiah’s wishes to rebuild the city in the first
place. Thus, caution alone could have prevented the king from granting Nehemiah’s request. Therefore,
I believe it was shortly after Nehemiah finished the wall and returned to
Shushan that the letter of complaint was written to Artaxerxes I.
Again, the letter made allegations that the walls that had
been built by the people he had sent (Ezra 4:12), and the Temple and city
currently under construction, were going to serve as a basis for a Jewish
rebellion. In response to the critical letter, and possibly being somewhat
embarrassed for letting his favorable attitude toward his Jewish cup-bearer
lead him to give official permission to rebuild the wall in the first place,
the king ordered the work stopped until further notice (Ezra 4:24). Consequently,
it seems that up into the 20th year of his reign, Artaxerxes I had been
favorable to the idea of rebuilding of both Jerusalem and the Temple—until
troublemakers made it a divisive political issue later on. Whether it was
caution, embarrassment, or simple political correctness, the king demanded a
temporary halt to all building activities on the Temple.
The next successive king
mentioned in Ezra is “Darius” (also in 4:24), who would historically be Darius
II. It was during the reign of this king, that the prophets—including Haggai
and Zechariah—prompted Zerubbabel to take courage and resume the work (Ezra
5:1–2). Zerubbabel was the governor at the time (Haggai 1:1).
The renewed activity on
the Temple caught the attention of the Persian Satrap, Tatnai, who asked where
they had gotten the authority to resume the work (Ezra 5:3). The Jews defended
their actions by saying that Cyrus II had actually made a written decree to
that effect back in 536. The Satrap then took a letter from the Jew’s stating their claims to Darius II.
The king ordered an immediate search of the official
records—which resulted in the rediscovery of Cyrus’ original decree, just as the Jews working
on the Temple had claimed in their letter (5:17–6:5). Darius II immediately
issued a hasty decree that all help and due speed was to be given to the Jews
so that they could complete the Temple as soon as possible (6:12). The Temple
was completed Four years later (6:15). The Temple was duly dedicated (6:16–22)
and the Jews began keeping the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread as
best as they could. (For some reason, Zerubbabel’s name was mysteriously dropped from the
record of current events from this point on as covered in both Ezra and
Consequently, the Temple must have been finished and
dedicated in the 6th year of Darius II, not
Darius I. This means the Temple was completed in 417, not 515.
After the Temple was
completed, the next successive king made a decree for Ezra to lead the last
willing captive Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem (7:1–13). The next historical
king after Darius II was Artaxerxes II—not Xerxes I. Thus, the 7th year (7:7)
of Artaxerxes II brings the year to 397—not 478.
When Ezra arrived, he spoke of the Temple, the Wall, and the
other “desolations” of the city as having been repaired. (9:5–9) This indicates that significant time had
passed since the Wall had been finished when the Temple and houses of the city
still laid in ruins. To be exact, “49” prophetic years had passed.
At this point, the accounts in Nehemiah 8:1 on and Ezra 7:1
on seem to overlap concerning the events occurring in 397. The account in Ezra
seems to focus on the people, their sins, and the ensuing reforms. Nehemiah
also focused on these points, but also added that the houses of the city had by
then been built up (Nehemiah 8:16). He also reported that the people had begun to
keep the Feast of Tabernacles in the correct manner for the first time since
the days of Joshua the son of Nun. This indicated the Temple and the individual
houses were finished (8:16–18). The account in Nehemiah also states that one-tenth
of the people then volunteered to live in the recently finished city. (Chapter
Lastly, the account in
Nehemiah reports that the “walls” of the city, essentially the city itself, was
finally dedicated at that time—that is—sometime after the 24th day of the 7th
month in 397 (12:27–47). [I believe The actual date of the dedication could
have occurred around the 20th day of the 8th month.]
In light of the above, I believe the proper important dates
to adopt are:
||The beginning of the Jewish captivity in Babylon.
||The destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem.
||The initial decree which began the end of the captivity.
||The beginning of the construction of Zerubbabel's Temple.
||The decree to rebuild the walls
and the subsequent cessation of the work
on the Temple.
||Nehemiah's rule as governor over Jerusalem ends.
||Zerubbabel was already serving as governor. Perhaps he was given this
office after Nehemiah's term expired in 434. In any case, the Temple
construction resumed at this time.
||The Temple was completed and dedicated.
||The last Jews in captivity were returned to Jerusalem (including
Nehemiah?) effectively ending the captivity. And, the Wall of Jerusalem
and essentially the city itself were officially dedicated.
The above chronology does raise the two following questions.
First, if Zerubbabel laid the foundation of the Temple in
536 and saw it through to its completion in 417 according to Zechariah 4:6–8,
he would have had to survive to a very old age. According to Matthew 1:12,
Zerubbabel had been born in Babylon—just as his name actually means. If we
suppose that he had been some 20 years old when he returned to Jerusalem, he
would have had to be at least 139 year old when the Temple was completed.
Though such an old age was indeed unusual, it was not
impossible. Even today, reports occasionally come in that make claims of very
old people living well into the 100’s.
As a pertinent note of interest, during the initial
preparation of this document, I purchased the March 18, 1996 copy of Time International.
On page nine was the small story of Maria Do Carmo
Geronimo of Carmo de Minas (Rio?). The article
reported how she celebrated her 125th birthday according to her
certificate of baptism.
Believer it or not, there is another more widely known report
of someone who lived some thirty years more than Maria did! His name is Thomas
Parr. His story has been related repeatedly on the Discovery Channel, as well as the official
website of the Westminster Abbey in Great Britain.
The Westminster Abbey is a very old church that has served as
the crowing place of English monarchs beginning in 1066 with William the Great.
It also provided burial places for some monarchs and other distinguished ones until
1760. Among the notables that are entombed there are the poet, Geoffrey
Chaucer, the physicist, Isaac Newton
— and Thomas Parr.
Thomas Parr was born in Sallop
County, in 1483. He outlived two wives and lived through the reigns of ten
princes. Finally, he was buried in the Westminster Abbey on November 15, 1635—at
152 plus years of age! You can read a more full account at the abbey’s
own website at:
Abbey online library burial information for Thomas Parr
Such longevity in the last millennium is certainly unusual —
but not impossible. Thus, I believe the possibility of such old age in Ezra’s time, some 2.5
millennia ago, is no more impossible than it is today.
In addition, it also seems that God has a way of granting
extremely long life to chosen individuals if it serves His purpose, and
glorifies Him as the One actually accomplishing a notable deed worthy of His
praise. Examples are found with Abraham (Genesis 15:15 & 25:7, [175
years]), Jacob (Genesis 47:9 [130 years]), Moses (Deuteronomy 34:7 [120
years]), Job (42:16 [140+years]), and even Simeon and Anna in the New Testament
(Luke 2:25–37, Simeon’s
age was not given, but Anna was 84).
Moreover, in Zachariah
8:4, it seems the Lord actually promised that some of a “very” old age would be
living in Jerusalem after the city was finished. It also seems that Zerubbabel
was on the verge of giving up on seeing the Temple completed—perhaps because of his old age. Thus,
the Lord told Zerubbabel the Temple for which he had laid the foundation was
also going to be finished by his hands. Yet, it would not be accomplished by
strength or vitality, but God’s
spirit who would finish the task (Zachariah 4:6–8). This was much like Abraham,
who had at one point given up on he and Sara producing a child because of their
old age (Genesis 17:17).
Thus, even though I believe it would be remarkable for
Zerubbabel to have lived so long and survived until the Temple was finished, I
do not believe it would be impossible or improbable, just as the Lord reminded
Abraham and Sara in their day (Genesis 18:14).
Lastly, some may believe
that taking 119 years to build the Temple was too long a period. Yet, in John
2:20 the Jews of A.D. 27 told Jesus that the current Temple had been under
reconstruction for 46 years, since it had begun under the direction of Herod
the Great in 19 B.C. I must point out that Herod had ready access to materials
and laborers, and no one to oppose his
efforts. The Jews of Zerubbabel’s time were not so blessed. Thus, I do not believe it was unreasonable
for the Jews to take 119 years to build an inferior Temple.
Now, if this chronology
is correct, as I believe it to be, the remainder of this study will take on
From 19 B.C. to A.D. 30 and the Crucifixion
of Jesus Christ
The historical records indicate that Herod the Great—an
Idumean who was also consider half-Jewish by some—took it upon himself to
restore the inferior Temple that had been built from 536 B.C. until and finished
in 417 B.C. According to Flavius Josephus, it was Herod’s desire to restore the Temple to its
original glory as originally built by Solomon (Antiquities of the Jews, Book XV, Chapter XI, and Section 1).
In Section 2, Josephus continued to relate how Herod
prepared 1000 wagons for hauling stone; 10,000 of the most skilled workers, and
1000 sacerdotal garments for the priests who would train the stonecutters and
carpenter for this special job.
The sources I have place
the beginning of Herod the Great’s reign at 37 B.C. Josephus states that Herod gave a speech that issued a
decree to restore the Temple to its Solomon-like splendor in the 18th year of
his reign—which would have been 19 B.C. The main part of this Temple was
completed in 9 years. However, restoration and construction of other buildings
connected with it continued for some 70 years. It was completed circa A.D.
This Temple is the only one Jesus ever visited or of which He
spoke. Also according to the historical records, this same Temple was later
destroyed by the Roman General, Titus, in A.D. 70.
Furthermore, and according to John 2:13–23, Jesus went to
Jerusalem to keep the Passover in the first year of His public ministry. There the
Jews reminded Him how the Temple—begun by Herod—had been 46 years in
construction up to that point in time. A little earlier this same year, Jesus
had been baptized, and He later kept the first recorded Passover since He had
begun His public ministry. Lastly, Luke 3:23 says that Jesus was baptized and
began the 1st year of His public ministry when He was “about thirty years” of
John also records two other clearly mentioned yearly Passovers in 6:4 and 13:1–3. However, many
scholars and some manuscript copies indicate one additional Passover was also
mentioned in John 5:1. Thus, on the 4th Passover, and 3 years after being told
the Temple had been undergoing restoration for 46 years, Jesus was crucified.
This means the Temple was some 49 years old when the Messiah was cut off. It also means Jesus was 33
years of age when He was crucified.
If the date of Herod
initially making his decree to restore the Jewish Temple is correct—and this
date is used as a basis for calculating the birth of Jesus Christ—Jesus would
have been born in what we call 3 B.C. and crucified in April of A.D. 30.
Interestingly, Matthew 2:16 reports that Herod sought to kill Jesus when He was
only 2 years of age. Thus, the resulting slaughter of all boys of 2 years of
age and under in Bethlehem would have occurred sometime in 1 B.C., which would
have been right before the later accepted historical date for Herod’s sickly demise and ensuing miserable death. (Antiquities, Book XVII, Chapters
VI–VIII.) The earlier historically accepted date of Herod’s death is 4 B.C.
One could make reasonable arguments for the validity of both
dates. However, some base the earlier date of 4 B.C. mainly upon Josephus’ claim that an
eclipse of the moon occurred right before Herod died. In Book XVII, Chapter VI,
and Sections 1–4 of Antiquities,
Josephus did report that Herod had been sick sometime before such an eclipse,
but became much worse on the very night of it, and supposedly died a little
while later. However, some also say a more prominent eclipse occurred some time
during the latter part of 1 B.C. Thus, one can build a case to show that Herod
may have died near the end of 1 B.C. or even a little later.
In addition, Luke 1:24–36 indicates that Elizabeth conceived
John the Baptist and hid herself for 5 months. It also indicates the angel
Gabriel told Mary of her impending miraculous conception in either the “6th” month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy— or better yet—the
6th month of the year. In those days, Mary came to Elizabeth with John the
Baptist—still in the womb—and the unborn child instantly knew Mary and rejoiced
because she had recently conceived just as Gabriel told her she would.
If the 6th month described
above was Elizabeth’s 6th
month of pregnancy, then it is nearly impossible to know more about the time of
Jesus’ birth. However, if the month
in mention was also the 6th month of the
year, it would have been the month Elul, which corresponds to our August
and September. If this is the case, then Jesus would have been born some 9
months later during Nisan and Iyar which corresponds to our April and May. This
would have been right around the time of the Passover and dring
the feast of weeks, just as John 2:12–23 and Luke 3:23, 4:1–2, 14–16, 28–31
seem to indicate, and also reported that Jesus was about 30 years of age.
Considering the Last
Passage of Daniel 9:24–27
In order to benefit fully from this study, it is necessary
for the reader to have the proper understanding of prophetic time references.
It is also necessary for all time standards concerning prophecy to be treated
in their proper context, interpretation, and application as they were originally given, and as they were originally meant to be understood. Without observing these points, the correct
understanding of Daniel 9:24–27 is practically impossible. The points for
consideration are enumerated as follows:
Base Measurement Standards for Biblical Prophecy
One actual solar year equals 365 days, 6 hours, and 9
minutes, and 9.54 seconds. However, for all intents and purposes, the modern
solar year can be treated as being 365.25 days long.
Dividing the actual solar
year by 12 months indicates that each actual solar month actually equals
30.4375 days. However, a prophetic Jewish year equals 360 days and one
prophetic Jewish month equals 30 days such as is depicted in Revelation 11:2–3
where 42 months are equated with 1260 days, with each month representing 30
Thus, to convert Jewish
prophetic years to actual solar years, multiply each Jewish prophetic year by
360 and divide the product by 365.25. In considering the specific time period
numerated in Daniel 9:24–27, note the following:
1 week of sevens equals 7 prophetic years, which equals;
7 X 360 = 2520 / 365.25
= 6.899 actual solar years.
[6 years, 328.35 days or
6 years, 10 months, and 23.97 days.]
7 weeks of sevens equal 49 prophetic years, which equals;
49 X 360 = 17640 /
365.25 = 48.296 actual solar years.
[48 years, 107.99 days
or 48 years, 3 months, and 16.687 days.]
62 weeks of sevens equals 434 prophetic years, which
434 X 360 = 156,240 /
365.25 = 427.76 actual solar years.
[427 years, 277.59 days
or 427 years, 9 months, and 3.6 days.]
Conversion of Jewish prophetic weeks and
years, to solar years.
7 49 48 years, 3 months, and 16.687 days
62 434 427 years, 9 months,
and 3.6 days
69 483 476 years, 0 months,
and 20.287 days
Plus the last delayed period, the final
1 7 6
years, 10 months, and 23.97 days
70 490 482 years, 10 months,
and 43.97 days
In light of all the above, the following notable points
First, in 446.01805 B.C. (if the exact date was the 6th day
of the 1st month), Nehemiah was given permission to leave Shushan in Persia and
travel to Jerusalem to rebuild the walls. The street was also rebuilt as well.
48.295687 solar years (49 prophetic years of 7 weeks of 7’s) later, the city
was finished and the wall was dedicated in 397.72237 if it was the 20th day of
the 8th month. This is the perfect
fulfillment of Daniel 9:25!
Next, from 397.72237 (or
the 20th day or the 8th month?) Jerusalem survived as it had been dedicated for
the next 427.7618 (or 427 years, 9 months, and 4.248 days) very troublesome
solar years (again, 434 prophetic years of 62 weeks of 7’s). This brings us historically to A.D. 30.03943
(or the 14th day of the 1st month of A.D. 30)—the historically perfect date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ
when the Anointed One, i.e., the Messiah, was to be “cut off,” according to
In either case, on the Passover of A.D. 30, Jesus offered
His sinless body and blood as the Paschal Lamb as payment for the sins of the
world—and not for His own benefit. In
doing so, the Mighty God of Isaiah 9 has reconciled Himself to those who were
previously alienated from Him.
As the historical record bears out, 40 years after Jesus’ Crucifixion and resurrection, Jerusalem was
destroyed by a “flood” of Roman soldiers. And, since then there have been wars
and destructions. However, in 1948 Israel miraculously became a nation once
Obviously, Daniel 9:27 is
still yet to be fulfilled. One more prophetic week of 7’s and another Temple yet remains to come to pass. Remember,
no one but God knew when Artaxerxes I was going to issue the command for the
wall of Jerusalem and the rest of the city to be rebuilt, which signaled the
beginning of the first 69 weeks. Likewise,
no one can know when this last week and the reign of the prince of desolation
will begin until the specific events marking its beginning actually occur.
In light of current
events, I often find myself wondering if Daniel’s last week could be rapidly approaching at this
very hour! What about you?
Those who read and believe
the Hebrew prophets of old, are told by Zachariah 12:8–14 and also Revelation
1:7, that the troubled Jews living at the close of this last week—and the rest
of the Gentile world—will look upon the “Lord” whom they have pierced and they
will mourn for Him as for their first born child.
The first time the
Messiah came, he looked over Jerusalem and wept as He lamented with overcoming
“. . . If
thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy
day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from
thine eyes. For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a
trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, And
shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall
not leave in thee one stone upon another; because
thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.”
(Luke 19:41–44) [bold emphasis mine]
God’s prophets have said the next time the Messiah comes, things
will be different!
Blessed be the Jewish prophets, the Jewish people, the city
of Jerusalem, the nation of Israel—and the Jewish Messiah who came, died, and
was resurrected almost 1966 solar years (i.e. 1994 prophetic Jewish years) ago!
And, blessed is the same Messiah who will come again—perhaps soon—and “seal up”
the visions and the prophecies of Daniel, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Zachariah, and all
the others yet unfulfilled.
It is at the end of this
last week that all transgressions against Jerusalem and the Chosen people of
God will be finished. It also the time the nation of Israel will be reconciled
to the ALMIGHTY GOD of heaven. And,
to top it off, the Messiah will then set up His new Kingdom on Earth, with
Jerusalem—and it’s Temple,
which will yet to be built (Ezekiel chapters 40–42)—as it’s perfect Theocratic and political center which
will literally bring an end to sin.
Lastly and ultimately,
the “Glory of God” will fill the Temple (Ezekiel 43:1–5) for the first time
since the times of Solomon’s
Temple. This will result in everlasting righteousness, peace, and good will
upon Earth. (Ezekiel 43:6–9)
If the Hebrew prophets
and the historical records are trustworthy as I believe they are, then each who
understands this may rightly conclude that Yeshua Messiah, (i.e., Jesus Christ)
and His teachings are suddenly all important and worthy of reception by all.
For any who wish to do
so, I recommend studying and acting according to John 3:16, Romans 10:9–10, and
Ephesians 2:8–9, which was written by the Jewish prophets of the resurrected
Messiah some 1,900 years ago.
T. Robinson II
April 14, 1998
This document is subject to future revision as the author
may be inclined.
In addition, I encourage the use and limited distribution of
this material if any wishes to do so. However,
I have copyrighted this material to protect it from unauthorized alterations. I
also must request that written permission be obtained from me in the event
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Thank-you for your compliance with these wishes. Believe me,
I make these stipulations only to protect the integrity of this work and also
to insure that I can use it for mass publication in hopes of glorifying God and
His historically validated Word.
Abbey," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999
Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
August 26, 2013.